Workshop 1

Spatial and Environmental Inequalities in Indian cities

Abstract
Program
Team
References

Abstract

This workshop will explore spatial and environmental inequalities in Indian cities. 15 years of programs (JJNNURM, AMRUT, PMAY-U, SBM-U, Smart City Mission) and investments for urban development have led to some changes for water supply, transports, sanitation and housing in many Indian cities. Nevertheless poor access to basic amenities and services and exposure to environmental hazards (air pollution, vector-borne diseases) remain, and urban segregation pushes poor urban dwellers on the fringes of the cities. The outcomes of many national programs for urban development have been barely assessed in terms of reduction of inequalities.

By returning to some research project cases (CHALLINEQ, GLOBALSMOG) and public domain data we will invite participants to question concepts of spatial and environmental justice in Indian cities. Who gets access to what in an Indian city? How do we measure inequalities in space? How are spatial inequalities compounding other inequalities? How do we collect information to characterize the exposure to environmental factors and the access to amenities? What are the methodological challenges we face while using spatial information to characterize the environment and amenities in cities?

While the focus will be on Indian cities, the workshop will be an opportunity for participants to reflect on the use of public domain data, Geographic Information System, crowdsourcing and crowdmapping methodologies in order to assess policies and programs outcomes in terms of equity. This workshop will also present an opportunity to discuss in details the importance to consider Mixed Methods Researcch to address environmental and spatial inequalities in an urban context.

Program

TUE, 29 NOV

09:30 – 11:00 | An introduction to the CHALLINEQ project – Nicolas Gravel, Shailja Tandon, Bertrand Lefebvre

In this session we will present the CHALLINEQ project. How was the project first conceived from a conceptual and theoretical standpoint? How was the CHALLINEQ project related to previous works and surveys? What were the implications in terms of research questions, methodology and study design? What were the expected results from the project? This introduction will be an opportunity to discuss collectively the importance to consider the necessary retroactions between concepts/theories, research questions, surveys and preliminary results.

11:00 – 11:15 | break

11:15 – 12:30 | Turning research questions into a survey – Nicolas Gravel, Shailja Tandon, Rashmi Bala, Deepanshi Mishra, Harshita Pande, Keshav Patel, Aditya Prem Kumar

In this session and returning to the CHALLINEQ project, we will look more closely at the complex process of turning research questions into a survey and how it led to the definition and creation of ad-hoc variables and the collection of various data. This session will be an opportunity for the trainees to share and discuss collectively their experience in relation to their own fieldwork.

12:30 – 01:30 | Lunch

01:30 – 03:00 | From field work collection to spatial analysis: data in the CHALLINEQ project – Samuel Benkimoun

This intervention will focus on the whole life cycle of data in a large scale survey project. We will give the participants an overview on how the design of your study is a crucial step that will determine the quality of your dataset and the results you can derive from it. As we shall see, a collaborative setting involves a certain level of “discipline” when coming to the data, but also a constant dialogue between the quantitative part of the data and the qualitative knowledge that emerged from the field. Through a series of concrete examples and explaining the recurring challenges we have faced although the CHALLINEQ project, we will give a few recommendations and guidelines on how to structure and analyze your data in a comprehensive manner. We will also investigate the role of spatial information in such a project trying to address inequalities in housing and urban services, and what are the conceptual stakes that participants should consider when designing their own studies. Taking the specific example of access to green spaces in the urban setting, we will finally show how we structured and transformed the data from the survey to run some logistic regression and evaluate the impact of a set of socio-demographic factors.

03:00 – 03:15 | break

03:15 – 05:30 | Groupwork brainstorming on the CHALLINEQ quantitative survey – Shailja Tandon, Bertrand Lefebvre, Nicolas Gravel

Trainees will work in group on some data samples from the CHALLINEQ survey. They will explore by themselves the variables definition, their relevance, and how they can provide hindsights to explore important issues in relation to inequalities of access to amenities or exposure to environmental hazard in a city like Delhi.

WED, 30 NOV

09:00 – 11:00 | Fieldwork activities – Shailja Tandon, Bertrand Lefebvre, Nicolas Gravel

Equipped with digital laser measure meters (Bosch) and Air quality monitors (Kaiterra), trainees will go on the field and experiment in real conditions with the issues of access to areas, informants and spaces. Data collection and field measures require the definition of clear protocols and the need to try and test devices under various conditions.

11:00 – 11:15 | break

11:15 – 12:30 | Towards mixed methods research – Shailja Tandon, Bertrand Lefebvre, Nicolas Gravel

More and more quantitative data are available to us to assess and analyze spatial and environmental inequalities in Indian cities. But as presented and discussed over the previous sessions, quantitative data also come with series of limitations and methodological difficulties. And once it comes to the inequalities of access to amenities or exposure to environmental hazards they tell only one part of the story. Returning to the case of CHALLINEQ and trainees own research projects, we will discuss collectively of the importance to consider mixed methods research as a strategy to enrich our understanding of these inequalities and to address our research questions.

12:30 – 01:30 | Lunch

01:30 – 03:00 | Urban greenspaces : access and uses inequalities’ in France – Emmanuelle Faure

Discussing policies, uses and access to urban greenspaces in the French context to investigate spatial and environmental inequalities in cities : How do we characterize greenspace? What is greenspace (perception, official definition…)? How can we measure/map urban greenspaces (satellite images, national databases, open data etc…)? How to take into account community based initiatives, public policies and the private sector in this field ?
This presentation is based on the GREENH-City project (GoveRnance for Equity, EnviroNment and Health in the City ; 2017-2020). More specifically, I will focused on objective 2 and 3, so on the description and analyze of the interventions produced and implemented within municipalities on green spaces according to their socio economics characteristics (objective 2) ; and the use and the contribution of green spaces on the quality of life and well-being of the inhabitants and highlight the existing interactions between the municipal intervention and the population (objective 3). The research project uses a multiple case study (6 cities from the French Network of WHO Healthy Cities) with an approach by mixed methods (qualitative/quantitative data mix : interviews on site in parks, documentation analysis, GIS…). This presentation also aims to show how urban greenspaces can be useful for health, well-being and healthy urban planning, but also, participate in a kind of “green/environmental gentrification”.

03:00 – 03:15 | break

03:15 – 05:30 | Groupwork brainstorming on the CHALLINEQ qualitative survey – Shailja Tandon, Rashmi Bala, Deepanshi Mishra, Harshita Pande, Keshav Patel, Aditya Prem Kumar

In this session, trainees will be presented the qualitative side of the CHALLINEQ survey. How was it developed? How was it conceptualized in relation to the quantitative data that were collected? What were the expectations in terms of preliminary results? Trainees will be invited to look more closely at the design of this survey and discuss the choices that were made.

THU, 01 DEC

09:30 – 11:00 | Groupwork brainstorming : A research proposal on spatial and environmental inequalities in Indian cities (1)

keeping in mind the overall theme of the workshop, and based on what was presented to them in the previous sessions around the CHALLINEQ project, trainees are invited to design and conceptualize a research proposal that would look at spatial and environmental inequalities in an urban context. Through collective discussion, trainees will decide on the scope of the research proposal, the research questions to be addressed and the methodology to be implemented.

11:00 – 11:15 | break

11:15 – 12:30 | Groupwork brainstorming : A research proposal on spatial and environmental inequalities in Indian cities (2)

12:30 – 01:30 | Lunch

01:30 – 03:00 | Discussion and feedbacks with tutors – Shailja Tandon, Bertrand Lefebvre, Nicolas Gravel

03:00 – 03:15 | break

03:15 – 05:30 | Groupwork presentation preparation

FRI, 02 DEC

09:30 – 11:00 | Groupwork presentation preparation

11:00 – 11:15 | break

11:15 – 12:30 | Groupwork presentation preparation

12:30 – 01:30 | Lunch

The afternoon will be dedicated to the presentation and discussion of each workshop groupwork.

Team

Shailja Tandon is is a Senior Research Associate at Lead at Krea University.

Nicolas Gravel is a professor of economics at Aix-Marseille University. He interrupted on two occasions (2004-07 and 2017-21) his professorship at Aix-Marseille University through a deputation at the French Ministry of foreign affairs where he served respectively as research fellow at, and as director of, CSH.

Bertrand Lefebvre is an Associate Professor of global health at EHESP School of Public and is presently a research fellow at IFP’s Department of Social Sciences.

Samuel Benkimoun is a PhD student in Geography at Université Paris-1 Panthéon-Sorbonne and a member of the Centre de Sciences Humaines in Delhi, and Geographie-Cités lab in Paris.

Emmanuelle Faure is an Associate Professor in Health Geography at the Paris-Est-Créteil University, and Lab’URBA.

Rashmi Bala is pursuing a Ph.D. in Urban Studies from Ambedkar University.

Deepanshi Mishra is working as a Upper Division head in an authority i.e. Delhi State Legal Service Authority to understand the nature and extent of victimization amongst citizen.

Harshita Pande is a consultant at LEAD.

Keshav Patel was a research assistant on the CHALLINEQ project.

Aditya Prem Kumar is a policy and research analyst at at Mindshare Analytics.

References

to be updated shortly

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